(a)  Building materials: Classification and requirements of good stone and brick, Brick manufacturing, harmful ingredients, 
testing, constituent of a good brick earth, lime, manufacturing, field‐testing, artificial hydraulic lime;  
(b)  Timber: classification, structure, seasoning, defects ; 
(c)  Paints: Constituents, types, characteristics of varnishes.
(d)  Concrete technology: Cement: Composition, manufacture, field‐testing, storage; Cement concrete; workability, durability, 
characteristic strength, physical tests, Concrete Mix design. 
(e)  Building construction: Stone masonry: safe permissible loads, brick masonry: bonds, laying, reinforced brick work, 
defects, glass block masonry, Partition: Non load bearing, brick, clay block, timber and glass, cavity walls; Dampness: sources, 
effects, prevention, materials used, Roof types, Floor type: brick, cement concrete, terrazzo, mosaic, tiled, doors and windows. 
(f)  Construction equipment: Selection , bulldozer, dumpers, trenchers, excavators, hoe, hoists, graders, piling hammers, 
pumps, compressors, bitumen mix plant, rollers, clam shell, aggregate production techniques, crushers.
 (g)  Determinate Structures : Classification and types of structures, Type of  Loads. Simple Stresses and strains: Hooke’s law, 
 stress strain relationship, Elastic constants and their relations, Thermal stresses. Shear forces and bending moments in beams and SFD and 
 BMD. Stresses in beams: Direct, Bending, shear and torsion. Principal stresses and strains: Mohr’s circle and ellipse of stresses and 
 strains.Deflections in beams ‐ Double integration, Macaulay’s method, moment area, conjugate beam. Principle of vitual work ‐
 Castigliano’s first theorems, unit load method 

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