(a)  Introduction: Classification of structures, equations of equilibrium, stability, static and kinematics indeterminacies,  principle of superposition. Slopes and deflections in determinate beams and frames: Double integration, Macaulay’s moment area  and conjugate beam methods, deflection from strain  energy, Castiglione’s theorem and its applications, unit load method,  deflection of pin‐jointed frames, Maxwell’s reciprocal theorem.  Moving loads and influence lines: Analysis of statically  determinate structures subjected to moving loads, calculation of  maximum and absolute maximum B.M. and S.F., Influence line  Diagram for reaction,   S.F. and B.M. in beams trusses and 3‐hinged arches. Analysis of indeterminate beams and frames: Force  and displacement approaches in analysis of indeterminate structures, Method of consistent deformation, principle of minimum  strain energy, slope deflection method, moment distribution method, Muller‐Breslau Principle and analysis of indeterminate pin jointed  frames Plastic analysis: Introduction, plastic hinge concept, plastic modulus, shape factor,  upper and lower hound  theorems, collapse mechanisms, combined mechanism,  plastic analysis of beams and portal frames by equilibrium and  mechanism methods

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